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About Plugin Queuing
Starting with Kong Gateway 3.3.x, some Kong plugins now use queuing to decouple the production of data in the proxy path and the submission of that data to a server, such as a log server. This ensures that the upstream server isn’t taxed by recieving many proxy requests at the same time.
The following plugins now use queuing:
This page describes why queues are needed and how plugin queuing works.
Why are queues needed?
Some analytic and monitoring plugins, like HTTP Log and Datadog, must send request information that was processed by Kong Gateway to the upstream server.
Sending information directly from the log handler to the upstream server, instead of queuing it, avoids introducing latency to requests and responses. However, this approach can create a large number of requests when Kong Gateway is under a high load, which can overload the log server and negatively impact the ability of the machine running Kong Gateway to proxy requests.
The solution to this is to use batch requests. With queuing, request information is put in a configurable queue before being sent to the upstream server. This approach has the following benefits:
- Reduces any possible concurrency on the upstream server
- Helps deal with temporary outages of the upstream server due to network or administrative changes
- Can reduce resource usage both in Kong Gateway and on the upstream server by collecting multiple entries from the queue in one request
Note: Because queues are structural elements for components in Kong Gateway, they only live in the main memory of each worker process and are not shared between workers. Therefore, queued content isn’t preserved under abnormal operational situations, like power loss or unexpected worker process shutdown due to memory shortage or program errors.
How plugin queuing works
When Kong Gateway processes a request from certain plugins, it uses queuing to group the requests together before sending them to the upstream server.
Figure 1: Example of how requests from plugins are sent to Kong Gateway.
Figure 2: After the plugin requests are sent to Kong Gateway, the queue can be sent to the upstream server.
You can use several different configurable parameters for queuing. The following sections explain these features of plugin queuing in detail.
Queue capacity limit
Previously, the queue didn’t have any capacity limits. This resulted in a worker process exhausting all available memory if data was produced fast enough and the upstream server would be slow or unavailable.
Now, you can configure the maximum number of entries that can be queued at any time with the
max_entries parameter. When a queue reaches the maximum number of entries queued and another entry is enqueued, the oldest entry in the queue is deleted to make space for the new entry.
The queue code provides warning log entries when it reaches a capacity threshold of 80% and when it starts to delete entries from the queue. It also writes log entries when the situation normalizes.
Reduced timer usage
Only one timer is used to start queue processing in the background. Once the queue is empty, the timer handler terminates and a new timer is created as soon as a new entry is pushed onto the queue.
Queue flush on shutdown
When a Kong Gateway shutdown is initiated, the queue is flushed. This allows Kong Gateway to shutdown even if it was waiting for new entries to be batched, ensuring upstream servers can be contacted.
If a queue fails to process, the queue library can automatically retry to process it if the failure is temporary (for example, there are network problems or upstream unavailability). Before retrying, the library waits for the amount of time specified by the
initial_retry_delay parameter. This wait time is doubled every time the retry fails, until it reaches the maximum wait time specified by the
Plugin Queuing Reference - Learn more about the plugin queuing parameters you can configure.